Peacebuilding and Civilian Crisis Management Studies
Returning home after a civilian crisis management mission. CMC Finland Peacebuilding and Civilian Crisis Management Studies 1/2010, ISSN 1797-2140.
Finnish civilian crisis management experts represent a unique group of professionals who participate in temporary international assignments. Repatriation, the return back to the home country after living abroad, represents an important stage in the civilian crisis management cycle. Still, the repatriation of Finnish experts has received surprisingly little attention even though it can involve some difficulties personally and professionally, for instance if the experts’ home organisations do not appreciate and value the skills and talents the expert has gained, or further developed, during the mission. This article offers insight into the repatriation process of the Finnish experts, leaning on a conceptual framework of the repatriation process, which takes into account prior research on repatriation, as well as on empirical evidence, primarily in the form of a study on police experts. In addition, this article provides information and support not only to the experts themselves, but also to the experts’ home organisations, as well as to Crisis Management Centre (CMC) Finland, on how to prepare for and facilitate the repatriation process of the experts.
Enhancement of expertise in civilian crisis management:
positivity as a key towards personal dedication for a comprehensive approach CMC Finland Peacebuilding and Civilian Crisis Management Studies 2/2010, ISSN 1797-2140.
This article discusses the meaning of comprehensive approach from the perspective of individuals working in crisis management. The possibility for the comprehensive approach to be operationalised is finally about individual competence and willingness to act according to the new security paradigm. Furthermore, it calls for a re-evaluation of the expertise required in the field, turning the gaze back to recruitment and training of individuals for international crisis management. To enhance the expertise, the author draws from the turnaround offered by positive psychology which allows shifting the focus on how to expand that which is good to be even better, instead of alleviating what is wrong.
Limits of the “institutionalisation before liberalisation” approach:
EULEX Kosovo measuring its impact and fighting side-effects as an example. CMC Finland Peacebuilding and Civilian Crisis Management Studies 3/2010, ISSN 1797-2140.
The international community has become increasingly involved in large-scale crisis management operations. Commitment to more comprehensive and longer-lasting state-building has been considered a major tool for managing regional security risks. Despite the ambitious and wellmeaning goals, however, the shortcomings of these missions have been questioned widely. The lack of local ownership and the by-passing of democratic decision making processes have been identified as major flaws of the current international state-building operations. Kosovo is an interesting case as the small area hosts a number of crisis management missions and actors, whose mandates are sometimes overlapping: the UN civil administration (UNMIK) still operates, the OSCE mission is part of it, the EU has deployed a Rule of Law mission EULEX as well as an EU Special Representative (EUSR); the EUSR also wears a “double-hat” as he serves as the Head of the International Civilian Office (ICO). Although shrinking, the NATO peacekeeping operation KFOR is still in place. All international actors strive to map their achievements, but what is left outside these mechanisms of measuring effectiveness? A special focus will be given to the EULEX Kosovo Rule of Law mission, its mechanisms of measuring progress in achieving the objectives on one hand and its efforts in fighting against a number of side-effects on the other.
Get it Right!
Giving the appropriate place to gender and human rights in the
Common Security and Defence Policy. CMC Finland Peacebuilding and Civilian Crisis Management Studies 4/2010, ISSN 1797-2140.
The present article argues that it is only when human rights and gender aspects are effectively considered throughout a CSDP mission – from its initial planning to its implementation and evaluation – can one “get it right”, that is, plan and implement a CSDP mission successfully. While doing this importantly corresponds to the legal obligations of the EU and its political objectives, systematic consideration of human rights and gender brings about non-deniable operational advantages and increases a mission’s efficiency and effectiveness. While in different missions, depending on their focus and nature, different kinds of approaches to human rights and gender issues are called for, the present article argues that there are no missions, whether civilian or military,to which these aspects would not be relevant.
Although the EU has since 2005 elaborated a robust policy on human rights and gender in CSDP, the picture is mixed if one looks at the Joint Actions establishing the current CSDP missions. A clear reference to human rights and gender aspects at this level would, however, be very important. Today, all the ongoing CSDP missions have human rights and/or gender advisers or focal points; however several amongst them are “double-hatted” between missions or tasks. Although the missions are implementing a number of interesting, specific actions related to human rights and gender, the impact of these should be systematically evaluated in order to further institutional learning. The setting up of the new European External Action Service (EEAS) in 2011 has a potential to further strengthen the human rights and gender mainstreaming in CSDP, and this opportunity will hopefully be fully embraced. Considering the EU’s limited capacity to deploy simultaneous missions across the world, it needs to carefully weigh the different elements of a given situation before deciding to launch CSDP action. The protection of human rights should play a strategic role in this decision making, including as triggers for initiating or for discontinuing EU action.
YOSI ECHEVERRY BURCKHARDT
Sexual abuse by United Nations peacekeeping forces and
the legitimacy of peace operations. CMC Finland Peacebuilding and Civilian Crisis Management Studies 5/2010, ISSN 1797-2140.
In December 2004, the Washington Post reported allegations of sexual abuse by UN peacekeepers in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), quoting a fresh UN report which found that sexual abuse by UN peacekeepers “(…) appears to be significant, wide spread and ongoing.” The official reactions of the UN system have been strong ever since, but not much has changed in reality. This paper will ask to what extent the continued incidents of sexual abuse and exploitation undermines the UN legitimacy in the field as well as argues that the repeated problems with sexual abuse will not change until the essentialist gender discourse within the UN system is changed, because discourse is in itself a practice. The main geographical focus of this paper will be the Democratic Republic of Congo.
The gender perspective in the training and recruitment of Finnish civilian crisis management experts. CMC Finland Civilian Crisis Management Studies, Volume 2: Number 1/2009, ISSN 1797-2140.
The urgency of promoting the gender perspective in international crisis management is a goal mandated globally through a number of resolutions, political activity programmes and recommendations. This article deals with the challenge of implementing the gender perspective in the work of the Crisis Management Centre, Finland (CMC). It examines the manifestation of the gender perspective within CMC’s activities from two angles: the number of recruited women as emphasised by the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 and the implementation of the gender perspective in CMC training.
High integrity and feminine care: female police officers as protectors in civilian crisis management. CMC Finland Civilian Crisis Management Studies, Volume 2: Number 2/2009, ISSN 1797-2140.
The visibility of violence against women in recent conflicts has been used as grounds for arguments demanding more female personnel for peacekeeping and civilian crisis management (CCM) missions. Following the lead of Norway and Sweden, also Finland published a National Action Plan (NAP) in 2008, so as to implement UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (UNSCR 1325) Women, Peace and Security. In practice, the plan should result in the increase of the number of women on peacekeeping and CCM missions, and add a gender element into all conducted projects. This paper asks, what is being added and increased when it is women that are on demand? In particular, the paper investigates the meanings of gendered and ethnicised subjectivity in security politics in which Nordic women are seen as the solution for better crisis management in the form of operational efficiency. The study draws from in-depth interviews of Finnish policewomen, and their narratives of providing security on CCM missions. The paper argues that the dominating narratives, which essentialise women with care and empathy, are attempts to reformulate a new ideal of a security agent, who is capable of incorporating responsible and especially ethical action on the missions. However, as these qualities are being seen as feminine, the eyes are easily turned towards the ways in which female staff has thus far exemplified the position of ethical competence.
War-related sexual violence: Its dimensions and proposals for response. CMC Finland Civilian Crisis Management Studies, Volume 2: Number 3/2009, ISSN 1797-2140.
Sexual violence (SV) is a threat to human security in both in times of war and peace. As the majority victims in current armed conflicts are civilians, SV has also become a general security threat in many conflict areas. In June 2008, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1820 qualified SV as a “war tactic” with the hope that this definition will support in increasing awareness against SV and in prosecuting the military offenders. Despite important advancement in international law since the 1990s in the prosecution of wartime rape and despite increased attention placed on the issue, as a war crime rape still remains overshadowed by other atrocities and systematically disregards the victims. The emphasis of the international community has been on prosecuting and punishing the perpetrators SV, while the victim’s needs and rights have been pushed aside. Presenting SV as a gender matter or as a cultural phenomenon may not be the most useful point of view. Pragmatic actions against SV should still be taken. Even though this study is analysing sexual violence globally, a specific priority is given to the case of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) where the author made a field trip in July 2009.
Reintegration in Aceh Indonesia: Opinions of the Finnish civilian crisis management experts. CMC Finland Civilian Crisis Management Studies, Volume 2: Number 4/2009, ISSN 1797-2140.
The purpose of this article is to examine the opinions of the Finnish civilian crisis management experts in Aceh about the reintegration of the ex-combatants in Aceh. This article is based on interviews conducted during autumn 2006. The interviews aimed to find out how the Finnish civilian crisis management experts understood the concept of the reintegration in the light of civilian crisis management (CCM) context, methods and goals. Another aspect analysed in this article is the question about the success of the reintegration in Aceh. Did the Finnish civilian crisis management experts find the reintegration in Aceh to be a failure or success?
CEDRIC DE CONING
An introduction to Integrated Crisis Management. CMC Finland Civilian Crisis Management Studies, Volume 2: Number 5/2009, ISSN 1797-2140.
Integrated Crisis Management is one approach to manage crisis and enhance peacebuilding in a coordinated and sustainable way. This article analyses the conceptual framework of peacebuilding and crisis management activities as well as describes different approaches and conceptual definitions related to these activities. The major outcome of this article is the critical analysis on the limits of coordination and different approaches in a challenging environment of international peacebuilding and crisis management operations.
Coordination and Cooperation on Tactical and Operational Levels: Studying EU-ESDP Crisis Management Instruments in Bosnia and Herzegovina. CMC Finland Civilian Crisis Management Studies, Volume 1: Number 1/2008, ISSN 1797-2140.
The article examines the coordination and cooperation between the EU-ESDP missions in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The EU has, under the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), deployed in Bosnia and Herzegovina a Special Representative (EUSR), a police mission (EUPM) and a military mission (EUFOR Althea). Coordination between the different missions is of utmost importance, and experiences from co-existence of the missions have revealed some inconsistencies in the comprehensive approach of the EU in Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, in a process of learning by doing, the relationship and coordination between the different missions, at least on the operational level, has significantly improved.
Recruitment and Training in Civilian Crisis Management: Learning from the ECMM/EUMM Experiences. CMC Finland Civilian Crisis Management Studies, Volume 1: Number 2/2008, ISSN 1797-2140.
Monitoring is one of the European Union’s civilian crisis management priority area. This article contributes to the discussion of the quality of international mission personnel by examining the personnel serving the European Community Monitor Mission (ECMM) and its successor, the European Union Monitoring Mission (EUMM). Research results are mainly based on interviews of monitors and they highlight the lessons learned of the ECMM/EUMM experience. In general, the training and recruitment recommendations given in this article provide valuable tools to all those engaged in planning and assessing European Union Security and Defence Policy’s monitoring missions.
ARI KERKKÄNEN, HANNU RANTANEN & JARI SUNDQVIST
Building Capacity for the Palestinian Civil Police: EUPOL COPPS and Communications Project. CMC Finland Civilian Crisis Management Studies, Volume 1: Number 3/2008, ISSN 1797-2140.
This article reviews EUPOL COPPS, and the developments leading to its establishment as an EU security and defence policy effort to contribute to the stability in the region. The primary aim is to analyse and evaluate the Communications Project implemented by EUPOL COPPS in terms of capacity building within the framework of the Security Sector Reform (SSR). The question of adherence by the mission to human security principles is also revisited on the basis of the principles of the Madrid Report of the Human Security Study Group. Launching an ESDP mission in the Palestinian territories was no uncomplicated matter, but the establishment of the ESDP mission itself in the Palestinian territories can be regarded as a significant development for EU security and defence policy. Operationally, the most significant task of EUPOL COPPS was to enhance radio communication of the Palestinian Civil Police during the initial phase of the mission. The project approach utilised in EUPOL COPPS proved to be a useful crisis management approach, easily tailored to meet a particular need, manageable, transparent and economic. Moreover, it provided a useful and deployable link between civilian crisis management missions and development aid. Linking of bi-lateral projects in support of ESDP civilian crisis management should be encouraged.
Human Security in Post-Status Kosovo: a Shared European Responsibility. CMC Finland Civilian Crisis Management Studies, Volume 1: Number 4/2008, ISSN 1797-2140.
The Human Security Doctrine for Europe is the work of a Study Group led by Professor Mary Kaldor. This article will analyse if, how, and, to what extent the concrete implementation of the Human Security Doctrine proposals are useful in the post-status situation in Kosovo; especially in regards to the launching of the EU civilian crisis management operation. It is argued in this article that the human security concept is important in particular when improving the EU’s performance and effectiveness on the ground in crisis areas. This can be achieved, for example, by introducing the human security approach into the EU’s crisis management pre-deployment training.
PRT models in Afghanistan: Approaches to civil-military integration. CMC Finland Civilian Crisis Management Studies, Volume 1: Number 5/2008, ISSN 1797-2140.
The 26 Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRT) in Afghanistan combine military and civilian capacities in crisis management. This article gives an overview of the mission and history of the teams, presenting more closely four generic PRT models. The flexibility of the concept has developed into an incoherent network of lead-nation-driven units which could run counterproductive to Afghan ownership and the comprehensiveness of international efforts. While in need of reform, the PRTs in general provide an interesting and unprecedented model for civil-military integration at the field level.
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