Civilian Crisis Management – the Finnish Model

The Finnish Civilian Crisis Management Model comprises the national legislative, interministerial administrational, budgetary and operational arrangements to facilitate the Finnish participation in Civilian Crisis Management missions and operations and related international assignments in the context of UN, EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), OSCE, and a number of other International Organisations. Finland’s participation has had a strong mandate from successive governments as an integral part of Finnish and EU foreign policy. The model has evolved over the years to respond to the needs of our international partners.


Policy and strategy basis

– Programmes for Government since 2003 include civilian crisis management

– Finland’s Comprehensive Crisis Management Strategy 2009

National Strategy for Civilian Crisis Management 2014

– Parliamentary committee for crisis management 2020 – 2021, and its policy recommendations for the development of Crisis Management in Finland (Government publications 2021: 13)

– Supplementary politico-strategic congruence:

  • Women, Peace and Security (UNSCR 1325) National Action Plans (2008, 2012 – 2016, 2018 – 2021, 2023 – 2027)
  • The Government’s Sustainable Development Action Plan and societal commitment.



– Act on the Participation of Civilians in Crisis Management (1287/2004 and its later amendments).

Unofficial translation of the legislation into English.

– Decree of the Ministry of the Interior on the Terms and Conditions of the Employment Relationships of Civilian Personnel Participating in Crisis Management (1388/2018)

– Act on Compensation for Accidents and Service-Related Illnesses in Crisis Management Duties (1522/2016) (physical and mental health, social and psychological support)

– Act on Public Officials in Central Government (750/1994)


State budget

The Ministry for Foreign Affairs (MFA) budgetary main category, 19,248,000 euros, transfer allocation 2 years (2024), to cover the costs of Finnish participation in civilian crisis management-related international duties

– Budgetary main category of MoI, 2,434,000 euros, transfer appropriation 2 years (2024), to cover the costs of national readiness, i.e. the operating costs of CMC Finland

– Annual budget management

– Multiannual budget framework for the period of government, 4 years


Decision-making and strategic direction

– MFA is responsible for issues concerning the participation of civilians in crisis management. (Act 1287/2004)

– MoI is responsible for issues concerning maintenance, development and coordination of national capabilities. (Act 1287/2004)

– MFA Decree on the Rules of Procedure of the MFA (550/2008), Section 31 (amended by Decree 199/2022) Functions of the Political Department

– The so-called tripartite meetings between MFA, MoI and CMC Finland

– Regular and agreed procedures in the application and nomination processes of experts to be seconded to civilian crisis management duties.


Statutory organisation of operations and services

– Crisis Management Center, CMC Finland (Est. 2007), operating in conjunction with the MoI. The government’s result-based management process and agreement with steering by MoI and participation of MFA.

  • readiness to recruit civilians to be sent on crisis management duties abroad
  • provision of crisis management training for civilians;
  • material and logistical readiness;
  • research and development activities;

– CMC Finland works together with various administrative branches and cooperates with relevant non-governmental organisations (NGOs) on the above activities


Further supportive measures

  • provision of insurance cover for seconded experts by State Treasury, Duty of Care –based medical care and emergency evacuation/repatriation
  • CMC Finland’s ISO9001 –based quality standard management with annual audits.
  • Digitalisation as Government policy and corresponding approach, systems and applications in the work of CMC Finland.


Employment relationship governed by public law

– Persons participating in crisis management or international civil protection missions abroad have a fixed-term employment relationship, governed by public law, with the State.

– The employer of such persons is the Crisis Management Centre. However, the MFA functions as the employer if it is deemed expedient from the viewpoint of foreign and security policy, or the MoI if the assignment is significant to national capabilities.

– The Emergency Services Academy Finland functions as the employer in the case of international civil protection missions.

– According to the Act on the Participation of Civilians in Crisis Management, with certain exceptions, persons employed by the State, a municipality, joint municipal authority, wellbeing services county or joint county authority for wellbeing services are entitled to unpaid leave of absence or exemption from work to participate in certain crisis management-related duties for a total of three years over a period of five years.



– Strategic communication;

  • To the relevant parliamentary committees, if necessary, to the executive branch of the Government
  • Stakeholders: ministries, administrative branches, professional groups, NGOs, educational institutions
  • Media, incl. Social Media and public communication

– Crisis communication

  • Coordinated as defined in the Crisis Management Centre’s plan for Crisis Communication, subject to periodic review and connected with situational awareness (e.g. Eastern Ukraine 2014, Ukraine 2022, Covid-19 2020-2021)


Societal Relations and Stakeholder Groups

– Intergovernmental and interagency cooperation, comprehensiveness

  • MFA, MoI, MoJ, MoD and other ministries
  • Police, Border Guard, Customs, National Prosecution Authority, National Courts Administration, Prison and Probation Service, Finnish National Human Rights Institution (Finnish parliament), Rule of Law Centre (University of Helsinki), Finnish Defence Forces (Defence Command, Defence Forces International Centre FINCENT)
  • Social security and rehabilitation: State Treasury

– Universities and other educational institutions

– Civil society, associations and NGOs (particularly Wider Security Network WISE, an umbrella organisation bringing together NGOs and parliamentary groups to work together to promote peacebuilding, crisis management and conflict prevention both nationally and internationally)

– Media

– Others